concept of feedback amplifier
�}�5��ܦ��Z:8���ʱ��p��ϗ�a��'8;]�5���zU$�����ܚ3���۪׉�F�q�8*�좱%�����T ��9��rt �H8$ĩ�����Dh�aE7�n�/�[��000 Feedback can be arranged to increase or decrease the input signal. 138 0 obj <> endobj 0 The output voltage is sensed and the current is subtracted from the input current in shunt, and as such its the currents, not the voltages that subtract. 0000009406 00000 n The amplifier G functions as a CCVS (but this should not confuse us, we will soon see that the representation is arbitrary!) Thus far we have seen the way in which the output signal is “fed back” to the input terminal, and for feedback systems this can be of either, Positive Feedback or Negative Feedback. But for feedback to be an effective tool it must be controlled as an uncontrolled system will either oscillate or fail to function. In the shunt-shunt feedback configuration the signal fed back is in parallel with the input signal. Thus the input voltage is reduced by the negative feedback signal, causing an even smaller output voltage and so on. This type of behaviour is called “bi-stability” and is often associated with logic gates and digital switching devices such as multivibrators. 0000000016 00000 n 0000001482 00000 n 0000014888 00000 n 0000031907 00000 n 0000028032 00000 n %���9&�x t�Wk��I4��ķsK���8 �2���2�ǃ��qῬF������Xro 0 "l� endstream endobj 77 0 obj 315 endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 36 0 R /Resources 52 0 R /Contents 58 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 52 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB ] /Font << /F1 57 0 R /F2 54 0 R /F3 60 0 R /F4 63 0 R /TT1 61 0 R >> /XObject << /Im1 65 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 67 0 R /GS2 68 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs6 55 0 R >> >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 699 /CapHeight 676 /Descent -205 /Flags 262178 /FontBBox [ -168 -218 1000 935 ] /FontName /KECMJH+Times-Bold /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 139 /XHeight 461 /StemH 139 /CharSet (/L/E/C/T/U/R/space/two/five/zero/endash/I/N/O/D/F/B/A/K/P/S/parenleft/G/\ colon/H/M/three/hyphen/six/parenright/b/j/e/c/t/i/v/u/l/n/d/a/k/q/o/s/y/\ f/g/r/m/one/p/W/h/Y/slash) /FontFile3 66 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 208 /Widths [ 250 333 555 500 500 1000 833 278 333 333 500 570 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 333 333 570 570 570 500 930 722 667 722 722 667 611 778 778 389 500 778 667 944 722 778 611 778 722 556 667 722 722 1000 722 722 667 333 278 333 581 500 333 500 556 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 333 556 278 833 556 500 556 556 444 389 333 556 500 722 500 500 444 394 220 394 520 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 500 0 0 0 0 0 747 0 0 0 250 0 0 250 570 250 250 0 556 250 250 250 250 250 0 0 250 0 0 0 0 0 250 0 250 250 0 0 0 250 0 0 0 0 0 500 ] /Encoding /MacRomanEncoding /BaseFont /KECMJH+Times-Bold /FontDescriptor 53 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj [ /ICCBased 70 0 R ] endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 699 /CapHeight 662 /Descent -217 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -168 -218 1000 898 ] /FontName /KECMIF+Times-Roman /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 84 /XHeight 450 /StemH 84 /CharSet (/L/e/c/t/u/r/space/two/five/zero/endash/I/n/o/period/F/d/b/a/k/C/p/s/par\ enleft/slash/eight/parenright/P/g/hyphen/one/E/six/four/A/l/i/D/copyrigh\ t/T/h/j/v/f/colon/bullet/w/x/m/S/y/N/equal/plus/G/dagger/greater/comma/H\ /three/percent/U/less/W/bracketleft/bracketright/nine/K/z/seven/R/V/quot\ edblleft/quotedblright/q/M/O/B/bar) /FontFile3 69 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 211 /Widths [ 250 333 408 500 500 833 778 180 333 333 500 564 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 278 278 564 564 564 444 921 722 667 667 722 611 556 722 722 333 389 722 611 889 722 722 556 722 667 556 611 722 722 944 722 722 611 333 278 333 469 500 333 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 480 200 480 541 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 0 500 500 0 350 0 0 0 760 0 0 0 250 0 0 250 564 250 250 0 500 250 250 250 250 250 0 0 250 0 0 0 0 0 250 0 250 250 0 0 0 250 0 0 0 0 0 500 0 444 444 ] /Encoding /MacRomanEncoding /BaseFont /KECMIF+Times-Roman /FontDescriptor 56 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Length 2599 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream 0000003085 00000 n Feedback is the process of taking a proportion of an amplifier´s output signal and feeding it back into the input. H�b```f``�``e`bf�g@ ~����vR Feedback amplifier, Negative feedback , Voltage series, Voltage shunt Current series Current shunt feedback 3. Shunt-Series Feedback, also known as shunt current feedback, operates as a current-current controlled feedback system. 0000001460 00000 n In the shunt-series feedback configuration the signal fed back is in parallel with the input signal and as such its the currents, not the voltages that add. We have seen that a Feedback System is one in which the output signal is sampled and then fed back to the input to form an error signal that drives the system, and depending on the type of feedback used, the feedback signal which is mixed with the systems input signal, can be either a voltage or a current. 0000000927 00000 n 0000009638 00000 n 0000004748 00000 n The effect of positive feedback is to increase the gain which can cause a system to become unstable and oscillate especially if GH = -1. H��W�r�����W�*Y���xe�ŭ. 0000003153 00000 n Feedback will always change the performance of a system and feedback arrangements can be either positive (regenerative) or negative (degenerative) type feedback systems. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. 1��X�g��(h8-]��A��l� ^���lb`J^�����;������ �J� Feedback Systems process signals and as such are signal processors. Basic Amplifier Feedback Amplifier A 1 = a 1 1 +a 1f ≅ 1 f A 2 = a 2 1 +a 2f ≅ 1 f Key points: 1. H��U˒�8��wvb*�%!���q�&�N�Te�d��l+���������E*����}�{t|���=��ӗ�w�G�a�{"�2�)�"� :��. 0000008475 00000 n 0000007129 00000 n Thus the input voltage becomes more positive, causing an even larger output voltage and so on. 0000015027 00000 n Circuit characteristics such as the systems gain and response can be precisely controlled. 0000001258 00000 n An example of a positive feedback systems could be an electronic amplifier based on an operational amplifier, or op-amp as shown. emphasis on the classic negative feedback amplifier. Positive feedback control of the op-amp is achieved by applying a small part of the output voltage signal at Vout back to the non-inverting ( + ) input terminal via the feedback resistor, RF. If however the gain around the loop is positive, the system is said to have positive feedback or regenerative feedback. For the shunt-shunt connection, the configuration is defined as the output voltage, Vout to the input current, Iin. A feedback system is one in which the output signal is sampled and then fed back to the input to form an error signal that drives the system.

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